Academia & Education
Key Facts from Academia & Education pulled from sources below.
Young women are now much more likely to have at least a bachelor’s degree—a complete reversal of the gender gap from 1980. In 2000, 31 percent of young women had at least a bachelor’s compared to 28 percent of young men. In 2011, 37 percent of young women had at least a bachelor’s degree compared to 29 percent of young men.
Today, two out of three students graduate with student debt, up from one out of three in 1992. The average student graduates with over $24,000 in student loan debt.
Women represent 51% of the nations PhDs, 51% of business school applicants, 67% of college graduates, and more than 70% of 2012 Valedictorians. [Catalina Leadership 2012]
In 1975, a higher percentage of males than females had completed high school, by a difference of 3 percentage points, but by 2010 females' rate of high school attainment was higher than males', by 3 percentage points 
A higher percentage of males than females had attained a bachelor's degree in 1975 (by a difference of 6 percentage points), while by 2010 the percentage of females who had attained a bachelor's degree was 8 percentage points higher than that of males. 
In 2009, 57.2% of Bachelor Degrees, 60.4% of Masters Degrees, and 52.3% of Doctoral Degrees awarded in the US were awarded to women. 
Women are more likely than men to graduate from college, are running more than 10 million businesses with combined annual sales of $1.1 trillion, and are responsible for making 80% of consumer buying decisions. 
Nationally, women are 57 percent of all college students but only 26 percent of full professors, 23 percent of university presidents and 14 percent of presidents at the doctoral degree-granting institutions. 
The number of female presidents has not changed in the last 10 years. 
Women account for less than 30 percent of the board members on college and university boards. 
Female faculty have not made any progress in closing the salary gap with their male counterparts. in 1972, they made 83 percent of what male faculty made: today they make 82 percent of what male faculty make. 
Twenty years after women became the majority on campus, college administrators are struggling to strike a gender balance even as female applicants outnumber men by nearly 30 percent. 
Nationally about 58 percent of college undergraduates are women, with some campuses at 70 percent. 
Alerted by media reports that some admissions officers may be accepting less-qualified male students over female applicants, the Civil Rights Commission is investigating whether women are being discriminated against in college admissions. 
28,962 -- Number of women who earned doctorate degrees at U.S. colleges and universities during the 2008-09 academic year.
Just this year, working women surpassed men in the attainment of college degrees. Women now outnumber men when it comes to finishing college and holding advanced degrees. 
Women enroll in greater numbers than men in both undergraduate and graduate institutions. In 2008, the immediate college enrollment rate for all females was higher than that for all males, 72 percent versus 66 percent, respectively. 
By 2019, women are projected to account for nearly 60 percent of total undergraduate enrollment. 
More recently, between 1997 and 2007, the increase in female full-time graduate students was nearly double that of males. 
From 1986 to 2006 the percentage of women presidents of a college or university rose from 10 to 23 percent. 
But in 2006, most women presidents led community colleges (28.8 percent) or small, liberal arts colleges. Only 13.6 percent headed doctoral schools in 2006. Even fewer women are at the top of large research universities. 
In the United States in 2010-2011, women earned only 36.8 percent of MBAs. This is a slight drop from 2009-2010 (36.9 percent). 
Gillibrand, Kirsten, Women's Economic Empowerment, 2011.
Arts & Entertainment
Key Facts from Arts & Entertainment pulled from sources below.
Women Behind the Scenes
WOMEN CENTRIC FILMS:
Films Directed by Women:
According to the the Chronicle of Philanthropy, of the 3,882 gifts over $1 million in the past five years, only 189 were to arts organizations.
In 2007, the Chronicle of Philanthropy’s “America’s Top Donors” reported six gifts of more than $1 million to area arts institutions, including the Shakespeare Theatre Company and the Phillips Collection. Since then, there have been only four gifts of more than $1 million in five years, to the Kennedy Center, Shakespeare Theatre Company and the Phillips Collection
Of the 44 comedy pilots ordered by the networks in anticipation of the 2012-13 season, 18 were conceived and/or written by women.
The LA Times reported that Oscar voters are nearly 94 percent Caucasian and 77 percent male. Men compose more than 90 percent of the five branches of the Academy, such as cinematography and visual effects. Only 6 of the 43 members of the governing board of the Academy are female, and only one is a person of color.
In 2009 there were 217 million moviegoers. The total admissions was 1.4 billion dollars.
Women were 113 million of the moviegoers and bought 55% of the tickets. Men are 104 million of the moviegoers and 45% of the tickets. Women made up 9 million more filmgoers than men.
Women Behind the Scenes 2011:
In 2011, only 5% of the top grossing films in Hollywood were directed by Women. The number has decreased since 1998.
In 84 years only 4 women -- Lina Wertmuller, Jane Campion, Sofia Coppola and Kathryn Bigelow -- have been nominated for an Academy Award for best director. One 1 has won.
Only 7% of Hollywood Directors are women.
Males outnumber females 3 to 1 in family films. In contrast, females comprise just over 50% of the population in the United States. Even more staggering is the fact that this ratio, as seen in family films, is the same as it was in 1946.
Females are also underrepresented behind the camera. Across 1,565 content creators, only 7% of directors, 13% of writers, and 20% of producers are female. This translates to 4.8 males working behind-the-scenes to every one female.
From 2006 to 2009, not one female character was depicted in G-rated family films in the field of medical science, as a business leader, in law, or politics. In these films, 80.5% of all working characters are male and 19.5% are female, which is a contrast to real world statistics, where women comprise 50% of the workforce.
From June 29, 2008 to August 27, 2010, the New York Times reviewed 545 works of fiction—338, or 62 percent, were by men.
The statistics of men and women reviewed in The New York Times in 2011 actually showed a decrease in female representation from the previous year. It was found that only 40 percent were female. Additionally, 10 men were given two reviews and a profile, while only one woman was.
Studies have shown that women make up just 16% of the behind the scenes crew on domestically produced commercial films.
Looking at distribution statistics regarding the 250 top-grossing films released in 2010 only 7% were directed by women, 10% written by women and 24% produced by women.
16.9% of the 3,879 feature films in both narrative and documentary categories submitted to the 2012 Sundance Film Festival were directed by women.
In a survey of the top 100-grossing movies of 2009 — including " Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen," "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince," and "The Twilight Saga: New Moon"— researchers found that 32.8% of the 4,342 speaking characters were female and 67.2% were male, a percentage identical to that of the top-grossing movies of 2008. The USC study determined that women were still far more likely than men to wear sexy clothing in movies, such as swimwear and unbuttoned shirts (25.8% versus 4.7%), to expose skin (23% versus 7.4%) and to be described by another character as attractive (10.9% versus 2.5%).
Revealing clothing and partial nudity was just as prevalent among 13- to 20-year-old female characters as it was among those 21 to 29, suggesting that females are sexualized on-screen at young ages.
Behind the camera, the gender inequality is just as dramatic: only 3.6% of the directors and 13.5% of the writers on the top-grossing films of 2009 were female, according to the study.
Researchers found that the sex of the storytellers had a significant effect on what appeared on-screen. In movies directed by women, 47.7% of the characters were female; in movies directed by men, fewer than a third of the characters were female. When one or more of the screenwriters was female, 40% of characters were female; when all the screenwriters were male, 29.8% of the characters were female.
The LA Times, November 2011
Women comprised 25% of all individuals working as creators, directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and directors of photography on broadcast television programs during the 2010-11 prime-time season. Women fared best as producers (37%), followed by executive producers (22%), editors (20%), creators (18%), writers (15%), and directors of photography (4%). On screen, females accounted for 41% of all characters. Programs with at least one woman creator or writer featured more female characters than programs with no women creators or writers. 
The Celluloid Ceiling study has tracked women's representation as directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and cinematographers on the top 250 domestic grossing films. In an effort to assess the larger picture of women's employment in film, this study monitored their representation as production designers (20%), production managers/production supervisors (25%/44%), sound designers/supervising sound editors (5%/5%), key grips (1%), and gaffers (1%). 
In 2010, women comprised 16% of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 domestic grossing films. This represents a decline of 1 percentage point from 1998 and is even with 2009 figures. 
Women accounted for 7% of directors in 2010, the same percentage as in 2009. This figure represents a decline of two percentage points from 1998. 
Across 400 top-grossing G, PG, PG-13 and R rated films released between 1990 and 2006, only 27 percent of over 15,000 speaking characters were female. African American women constitute only 7 percent of characters featured in dramas and situation comedies, Latinas constitute two percent, and Asian women account for less than two percent. 
Women own less than 6 percent of the full-power television stations in the U.S. 
Business Employment & Leadership
Key Facts from Business, Employment & Leadership pulled from sources below.
7 of the 10 lowest-paid occupations in the United States are restaurant occupations. Most of these occupations are majority female and pay median wages below the poverty line.
Servers – of whom 71 % are female – are almost three times more likely to be paid below the poverty line than the general workforce and nearly twice as likely to need food stamps as the general population.
Nearly 37 percent of all sexual harassment charges filed by women with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) come from the restaurant industry - more than 5 times the rate for the general female workforce.
In North America, women held 9.9% of senior private equity roles in 2012, up from 8.9% in 2011.
Recent data from Catalyst shows that women 15 and older accounted for 47.3 percent of the Canadian workforce.
In the US 58.1% of all women 16 years and over were in the labor force.
Women own 40% of businesses in the US and growing at a rate of 2x faster than businesses as a whole- these 8 million women-owned enterprises have an annual economic impact of nearly $3 trillion.
According to World Bank estimates, women own or operate between 25-33% of all private businesses globally.
46% of women-owned companies earn $10,000 or less and about 80 percent have annual revenues of less than $50,000. Despite the growing number of women entrepreneurs, only 3 percent of women-owned businesses have revenues of $1 million or more compared with 6 percent of men-owned businesses.
A study found that given equal resumes, women with children are 79 percent less likely to be hired than women without children.
None of Minnesota‘s 21 Fortune 500 companies are led by a woman.
Twenty-eight (28%) of Minnesota‘s top 100 publicly held companies have no women directors and 31% have no women corporate officers.
Sixty-six percent (66%) of Minnesota‘s Fortune 500 Human Resources executive officers are women, while only 16% are Chief Financial Officers.
Women make up the majority of Minnesota‘s workforce: 80% of women with children work, and 51% of Minnesota‘s working mothers are the primary breadwinner for their family, representing a 27% increase in the past two years.
Between 1970 and 2009 women went from holding 37% of all jobs to nearly 48% [Catalina Leadership 2012]
Females earn 11% less than males on average, are paid less than males in every industry and in many industries the gender pay gap has widened in the past 14 years. 
At the DAVOS WEF (World Economic Forum) in Sweden: 80 percent of attendees were men, women often were a minority of one on panels or not represented at all. Sheryl Sandberg was one of six co-chairs of the forum; the rest were men. Panels on the future of banking, energy supplies, international finance and global risks were among those with no women except moderators, even with a forum theme of "The Great Transformation: Shaping New Models."
About 20 percent of the panel speakers at 2012 WEF were women, up from 17 percent last year. About 80 percent of the WEF's partner companies brought mixed-gender delegations.
Mary Tolan, the founder and CEO of Accretive Health Inc., was the only woman around the table at WEF.
Nearly 50 years after the Equal Pay Act became law, American women working full-time are paid just 77 cents to the dollar compared to their male counterparts.
Due to the wage gap, full-time working women in New York collectively lose more than $22,340,000,000 each year. If the wage gap is closed, working women in New York and their families would have enough money for more than a year’s worth of food; 4.4 months of mortgage and utility payments; 9 additional months of rent; 3 extra years of family health insurance premiums; or more than 2,000 gallons of gas.
The number of women participating in the work force went from about 41% to 56% over a 40-year period. If they didn't join the work force, that would have been a 25% hit to GDP.
In the corporate world today, about 53% of the workers coming in are women. The female participation rate kind of goes 53% at the entry level, and then 37% at the next level up—lower-middle management. Then, at the VP level, it's 28%. And at the executive committee, it's about 14% and then, 3%.
Rebecca Blumenstein The Wall Street Journal November 2011
Among Fortune 500 companies, women constitute only 3 percent of the CEO s, 6 percent of the top paying positions and 16 percent of the corporate officers. 
Women have reached the CEO level in only four of the 14 industries covered by the Fortune 500—and even in these four industries, over 95% of the CEOs are male. 
Among Fortune 500 companies, women account for 15 percent of the board members; 13 percent of these companies have no women on their boards. 
women make up 48 percent of the labor force and 51 percent of all management/administrative/professional positions – but progress beyond this point is stalled and has been for the past three years. 
The wage gap widens as women age and move up the ladder into management. Women make only 78 percent of what men make – an improvement of less than half a penny a year since 1963 when The Equal Pay Act was signed. African-American women make 64 percent and Hispanic women make 52 percent of what white men make. 
Profits at Fortune 500 firms that most aggressively promoted women have been shown to be 34% higher than industry medians. 
The stock value of European firms with the highest proportion of women in power rose 64% over two years, compared with an average of 47% for all businesses, according to a McKinsey & Company study. 
A recent report called Women Matter 2010 found that companies with a higher proportion of women in their executive committees are also the companies that have the best performance. 
Firms with women investment partners are 70 percent more likely to lead an investment in a woman entrepreneur than those with only male partners. 
The high-tech companies that women build are more capital- efficient than the norm. 
Despite often being capital-constrained, women-owned businesses are more likely to survive the transition from raw start-up to established company than the average company. 
Organizations that are the most inclusive of women in top management achieve 35 percent higher returns on equity and 34 percent better total return to shareholders versus their peers. Research shows that gender diversity is particularly valuable where innovation is a key asset. 
Women currently hold 2.8 percent of Fortune 500 CEO roles and 3.3 percent of Fortune 1000 CEO roles. 
Overall, Women in Business in 2010 only included 7.6 percent of Fortune 500 top earners, 51.5 percent of management, professional, and related occupations, and 46.7 percent of the U.S. labor force. 
Gillibrand, Kirsten, Women's Economic Empowerment, 2011.
Women continue to dominate professions traditionally done by women, which typically pay less, accounting for over 95 percent of all kindergarten teachers, librarians, dental assistants and registered nurses in 2009.
In 2009 women accounted for less then 21 percent of computer programmers which was down from over one-third of the population since the late 1980s. Similarly, women's share of civil engineering declined from 13 percent in 2005 to just over 7 percent in 2009.
IWPR's briefing paper "Separate and Not Equal? Gender Segregation in the Labor Market and the Gender Wage Gap." 2009
The ratio of women's and men's median annual earnings, was 77.0 for full-time, year round workers in 2009, essentially unchanged from 77.1 in 2008. (this means the gender wage gap for full-time year-round workers is now 22.9 percent.) This is below the peak of 77.8 percent in 2007.
An alternative measure of the wage gap, the ratio of women's and men's median weekly earnings for full-time workers- was 80.2 in 2009, which is essentially flat since the historical high of 81.0 in 2005.
Women working full-time year-round continue to be paid only 77 cents for every dollar paid to their male counterparts in 2010. 
Median earnings for most women of color are even lower. In 2009, the earnings of African American women were 67.5 percent of all men’s earnings, and Latinas’ earnings were 57.7 percent of all men’s earnings. 
Additionally, more than half of married households have both spouses working and therefore women’s pay inequity hurts these middle class families’ economic stability. In single parent households, more often than not it is a woman as the sole caretaker of the children. 
Women may lose $434,000 in income, on average, over their lifetime due to the career wage gap. This harms women’s ability to save for the future, including retirement and their children’s higher education. 
Women with college degrees earn about $713,000 less than men over 40-year careers. 
The legal profession had the biggest pay gap - a lifetime pay gap of $1,481,000. 
A recent report showed that for 111 occupations for which there was sufficient data to analyze, women earned less than men in 107, or 96 percent of these occupations. 
The four occupations where women make more than men are: combined food prep and serving workers, including fast food (112.1 percent), bill and account collectors (109.5 percent) stock clerks and order fillers (105.1 percent), and counselors (104.9 percent). 
Gillibrand, Kirsten, Women's Economic Future in America, 2011.
Women make up 48% of the labor force and 51% of all management/administrative/professional positions – but there has been little progress beyond this point. For the past three years, women in top leadership positions across 10 different sectors have stalled at 18% (on average) – with numbers much lower among women of color. 
Six years of polling by The White House Project and GfK/Roper Public Affairs (in polls conducted in 2007, 2005 and 2002) have found that both women and men in large numbers—in some cases, as high as 90% (and never lower than 70%)—are ready to see women in the highest positions of leadership. 
Women’s “transformative” leadership style — making institutions more transparent, responsive, accountable and ethical — has been found to be more effective in leading modern organizations than men’s “transactional” approach, according to a Harvard Business Review analysis. Even national security and international security issues are being dealt with using these transformative leadership styles that women have created and championed for decades. Women are best-suited to steer these hotly debated issues to a successful solution — and lead our companies and our country from crisis to prosperity. 
Key Facts from Corporate Boards pulled from sources below.
Of startups with five or more women in leadership roles, 61% succeeded, and successful companies had a 7.1% share of female executives, while unsuccessful companies only had 3.1%.
In 2006, only 14% of the more than 5,000 corporate board seats for S&P 500 companies were occupied by women. Six years later, the number has moved marginally to 17%.
The percentage of S&P 500 companies with at least one female director is just over 90%, yet 10% of these companies still do not have women directors and 28% have just one.
Women hold only 14% to 16% of the seats on audit, compensation and nominating committees. Even fewer women chair the board or audit committee, serve as financial experts, and only 12% of compensation committees have a female chair.
Among the Fortune 1000, there are 139 boards that have no women directors; and, women comprise fewer than fifteen percent of all directors.
The number of women in senior technology positions at U.S. companies is down for the second year in a row. 9% of U.S. chief information officers (CIOs) are female, down from 11% last year and 12% in 2010.
The percentage of women on boards of S&P 1500 companies has barely changed since 2009, from 12.1 percent to 12.6 percent.
In 2011, women held 14.5 percent of board seats at Financial Post 500 companies, an increase of half of a percentage point since 2009.
Women's representation on private company boards increased 3.0 percentage points from 2009 to 2011. (which represents a significant difference at p<.05).
Close to half of public companies have zero women on their boards.
Only one company in 2009 and three companies in 2011 had 40 percent or more women directors.
While women comprise 51% of the population, they make up only 15.7% of Fortune 500 boards of directors, less than 10% of California tech company boards, and 9.1% of Silicon Valley boards.
Studies show companies with gender diversity at the top drive better financial performance on multiple measures – for example, 36% better stock price growth and 46% better return on equity.
For Return on Equity, the companies with at least three women on the board outperform those with none by 46%; for Return on Invested Capital, it’s 60%, and for Return on Sales, those companies exceed the others by 84%
Women now Account for 21.7% of directors serving on the boards of the largest banks in Europe. Compared to financial institutions in the Americas averaging 16.7% and those in Asia-Pacific at only 10.9%.
In Fortune 1000 companies, 14.6% of corporate directors are women. Women comprise about half of the total U.S. workforce; over half of all managers are women; and women are responsible for almost 80% of all consumer spending.
In 2003, Norway adopted a law requiring 40% of all board members of state-owned corporations and publicly listed companies to be women. France, Belgium, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain followed suit and are adopting similar quotas. Germany has pledged to raise the amount of female participation by 30% or greater by 2013.
France became the first model of success in 2011 by appointing 20.1% of women to boardrooms after implementing the law the previous year. This is a 13% increase from 2004.
In the CWDI 2011 Report on Women CEOs Opening Doors to Boardrooms and C-Suites, CDWIproposes the question: “Does it make a difference if a woman is in charge?” The answer: A resounding yes! The study analyzes 112 women CEOs in 39 countries. Three important points obtained from the research are as follows:
1. Top companies led by women have more women directors in boardrooms and in executive officer positions.
2. Companies with women CEOs have 22.3% women on their boards. This is compared to the 9.8% average on boards of blue chip companies.
3. Women-led companies have a higher percentage of women in senior management at 24.3%. The average representation of women in executive roles in peer companies is 12.2%.
In the U.S., the number of Fortune 500 companies run by women fell to a dozen last year from 15 in 2010, according to Fortune magazine's ranking. The percentage of women on U.K. boards is 14.9 percent, from 12.5 percent in 2010, according to a group called the "30 Percent Club" that is pushing for change.
Across Europe, the proportion of women on the boards of the top 300 companies grew to 12 percent in 2010 from 8 percent in 2004, an October 2010 report by the European Professional Women's Network shows. At this rate, gender parity would be reached in 16 years, the report said.
Among Fortune 500 companies, women account for 15% of board members, an increase of 5% in 13 years; however, 13% of these companies have no women on their boards. 
Similarly, women represent 16% of the board seats at the top 200 companies on the S&P 200, but only 12.4% at the top 100 banks. 
In 2008, of all Fortune 500 board seats, women of color held only 3.2% (a decline from 2005 levels)41 and more than 100 of these companies have no women of color on their boards at all. 
Only 16% of the nation’s top Fortune 500 companies board seats are held by women. 
Currently, 12 FORTUNE 500 companies are run by women, down from 15 last year. 
Companies with the most women board directors outperform those with the least on return on sales by 16 percent. 
Companies with the most women board directors outperform those with the least on return on invested capital by 26 percent. 
Companies with sustained high representation of women board directors, defined as those with three or more women board directors in at least four of five years, significantly outperformed those with sustained low representation by 84 percent on return on sales by 60 percent on return on invested capital, and by 46 percent on return on equity. 
Gillibrand, Kirsten, Women's Economic Empowerment, 2011.
Economic Growth & Development
In the next decade nearly 1 billion women are likely to enter the global labour force.
According to a report by Booz & Company, a consultancy, if female employment rates matched those of men, GDP would increase by 5% in America and 9% in Japan by 2020. The impact would be even larger for developing countries, home to most of the world’s women who lack adequate education and support (social and political). Increasing female employment would increase GDP significantly in countries like India and Egypt, where female labour-participation rates are below 30%.
If women entrepreneurs in the US started with the same capital as men, they would add 6 million jobs to the economy in five years — 2 million of those in the first year alone.
Women reinvest 90% of their income in their families and communities, compared to men who reinvest only 30% to 40% of their income.
Venture capitalists invested $28.4 billion in 3,673 deals in 2011, an increase of 22 percent in dollars and a 4 percent rise in deals over the prior year, according to the MoneyTree Report by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA), based on data from Thomson Reuters. The amount of venture dollars invested in 2011 represents the third highest annual investment total in the past ten years.
Investments in the fourth quarter of 2011 totaled $6.6 billion in 844 deals, a 10 percent decrease in dollars and an 11 percent decrease in deals from the third quarter of 2011 when $7.3 billion went into 953 deals.
A report issued by Goldman Sachs JBWere Investment Research focused on the impact of closing the female-male employment gap on Australia’s GDP. It is estimated that closing this gap would boost the level of Australian GDP by 11%. In terms of other nations, the analysis suggests that US GDP could be increased by as much as 10%, the Eurozone by 14%, Italy by 24%, Germany by 12%, France by 11%, the UK by 11% and Japan by 21%. 
The Report states that, “an important element of gender equality is the dominance of females in low productivity sectors of the economy, particularly health care and training, a bias to clerical roles and a bias to working short hours.” Policies that direct women into more productive sectors of the economy and retaining women in the workforce for longer would narrow or potentially eliminate the productivity gender gap. The impact of this would be significant: “On the assumption that females already in the workforce remain in their existing roles, then new female entrants exhibiting equal productivity gains as male workers would have the potential to boost the level of economic activity by over 20%.” In addition, closing the female-male employment gap and boosting female productivity would also help the problem of pension sustainability via increasing employment among those of working age, lifting household saving rates and lifting taxation receipts for governments. 
Toohey, Tim (Chief Economist), Colosimo, David and Boak, Andrew, Economics: Australia’s Hidden Resource: The Economic Case for Increasing Female Participation, Goldman Sachs JBWere Investment Research (26 November 2009)
A follow-on Goldman Sachs Investment Research report, “The Power of the Purse”, finds that in general, and particularly as it relates to women in the BRICs and N-11 countries, as women gain more household bargaining power and influence over savings and spending decisions:
Growing gender equality and the shift in household spending power towards women coincide with a period of rising incomes and rapid growth of the global middle class, which suggests that households are likely not only to spend more but also spend differently. Over the next five years, we expect to see the impact of rising incomes and improving gender equality play out most clearly in China and Russia, and to a lesser extent in Vietnam, Mexico, Brazil and Indonesia. 
It is estimated that if women were paid equitably to men, America’s GDP could be up to 9 percent higher. 
Gillibrand, Kirsten. Women's Economic Empowerment, 2011.
Economic Stats Taxes & Finance
Unemployment Rate % change on year ago
United States: 8.3 (Jan)
China: 6.1 (2010)
Japan: 4.6 (Dec)
Brazil: 4.7 (Dec)
[The Economist February 11, 2012]
Gross Domestic Product by Country
United States: $14.58 Trillion
China: $5.88 Trillion
Japan: $5.5 Trillion
Brazil: $2.09 Trillion
[World Bank, World Development Indicators 2012]
According to the Tax Policy Center, 76 million Americans who file income-tax returns, or 46.4% of the total, won't pay any taxes. [The Wall Street Journal Feb 2012]
According to the Congressional Budget Office Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will cost taxpayers as much as $333 billion dollars. [The Wall Street Journal Feb 2012]
Entrepreneurship & Small Business
Key Facts from Entrepreneurship & Small Business pulled from sources below.
Over 400 women-led companies in the Springboard portfolio:
Women are starting businesses at a rate of 1.5 times the national average, which is a 20% increase over the last decade. 187 million women worldwide are currently starting or running a business enterprise
As of 2012, it is estimated that there are over 8.3 million women-owned businesses in the United States, generating nearly $1.3 trillion in revenues and employing 7.7 million people.
Women own 40% of businesses in the U.S. and their businesses are growing at twice the rate of U.S. firms as a whole. 
In October 2009, the Center for Women’s Business Research conducted a study that identified 8 million women-owned businesses nationwide. The study revealed that these women-owned firms have an economic impact of $3 trillion annually that translates into the creation and/or maintenance of more than 23 million jobs or 16% of all U.S. jobs. 
In October the Center for Women's Business Research published the first ever study on the economic impact of women business owners in the US.
* There are approximately 8 million women-owned businesses nationwide
* Women-owned businesses employ 23 million workers (16% of total US jobs)
* Women business owners account for approximately $3 trillion dollars of total economic impact
According to the study, 87.5% of all women-owned businesses are without employees - perhaps a dramatic majority, but not necessarily a problematic one. Let's not forget that flexibility is the third most motivating startup factor for women business owners, according to a 2006 MasterCard survey, and many such women feel that the responsibility of managing employees would impinge upon that.
What is disturbing upon further examination of these statistics, however, is that the projected average annual revenue of these non-employee firms is $27,000, compared to the average annual revenue for firms with employees of $910,000. This means that 87.5% of women-owned businesses are only making 17% of the revenue, which represents a distinct revenue disparity where women entrepreneurs are concerned. 
Many women entrepreneurs lack access to both education and capital to make their businesses successful. Access to peers, mentors, resources, feedback, information and guidance about the business of running a business. Women also need increased access to capital, both as debt and equity. Women make up less than 20% of bank funding and less than 10% of angel and venture capital investments. Those with capital should recognize the incredible amount of value in this market and engage with women businesses owners to find creative and lucrative financing options or help them better connect with existing ones. 
Three quarters of all women-owned businesses are majority owned by women for a total of 7.2 million firms, employing 7.3 million people, and generating $1.1 trillion in sales. 
Women-owned firms account for 40% of all privately held firms. 
Businesses owned by women of color employ 1.2 million people and generate $165 billion in revenues annually. Between 2002 and 2008, these firms grew faster than all privately held firms. 
Women-owned or led firms are the fastest growing sector of new venture creation in the U.S., growing at five times the rate of all new firms between 1997 and 2006 – now representing nearly 50 percent of all privately held businesses. 
In the past 10 years more than 125 companies with over 200 women co-founders or officers have achieved IPOs or sold for greater than $50 million in the U.S. high-tech sector alone. 
According to research group VentureOne, 6.56 percent of venture capital backed companies had women founders in 2006. 
Only 2.67 percent of the total amount raised by venture capital backed companies had women CEOs in 2006. 
Women now represent just over 15 percent of angel investors, but just 5 to 7 percent of partner-level high-tech venture capital investors in the U.S. 
$1 million plus, woman-led companies are twice as likely as those led by men to gain debt versus equity capital. In 2008, woman co-founded tech businesses gained less than 10 percent of venture investment in the high-tech sector while representing 30 percent of the workforce. 
Gillibrand, Kirsten, Women's Economic Empowerment, 2011.
Gender Lens Investing
Soon to come...
For girls aged 8 to 17, 72% defined safety as not being physically hurt and 46% defined it as not having their feelings hurt. But when asked what actually worried them the most, the number one concern, noted by 32%, was being teased or being made fun of.
Almost one quarter of teenage girls (23%) have fewer than three adults they could go to if they were in trouble or needed help, compared with only 11% of preteen girls who feel this way.
In 2005, females were more likely than males to engage in disordered eating with 6% of females reporting vomiting or using laxatives to control weight compared with 3% of males. (ChildTrends.org, Child and Youth Indicators Databank: Disordered Eating—Symptoms of Bulimia, 2006)
In 2005, female high school students were more than twice as likely as their male peers to report being physically forced to have intercourse (11% compared with 4%). Eight percent of all students in grades 9 through 12 reported having been raped at some time in their lives. (ChildTrends.org, Child and Youth Indicators Databank: Adolescents Who Have Ever Been Raped)
In 2005, 9.2% of students nationwide had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend (i.e., dating violence). Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among black female (12.0%) than white female (8.5%) and Hispanic female (9.0%) high school students.
In 2005, female youth were nearly twice as likely as male youth to report seriously considering suicide (22% versus 12%) and attempting suicide (11% versus 6%). However, males were far more likely to succeed in committing suicide. (ChildTrends.org, Child and Youth Indicators Databank: Suicidal Teens, 2006)
Giving to Women & Girls
Key Facts from Giving to Women & Girls pulled from sources below.
In 2009 Education and Health benefited from the largest shares of grant dollars with 23.3% going to Education and 22.6% going to Health. Human services was next with 13%.
Share of grant dollars identified as serving women and girls was less than 10%.
The economically disadvantaged benefited from the largest share of grant dollars and grants with nearly 30% of total giving, followed by children and youth.
Led by the Gates Foundation, Western foundations provided the largest share of grant dollars awarded ($7.8 billion) with the majority of those grant dollars given to health (31%) and education (23%).
The largest share of funding targeted educational institutions.
Results from this report include grants of $10,000 or more and account for 1,384 of the largest US foundations and approximately half of giving by all U.S. foundations for a total of $22.1 billion (independent, corporate and community foundations)
In Europe there are 110,000 foundations with annual expenditures of 100 billion euros.
37% of European foundations sampled reported that they engaged in at least some grantmaking or programmatic activities that were specifically intended to benefit women and girls.
Nearly one in five European foundations (out of the 145 surveyed) said that they explicitly named women or girls in their mission statement or grantmaking guidelines as a population group they seek to support.
Children and youth are the top beneficiary population (74%) designated by European foundations.
In 2009, the median percentage of total grant monies allocated by foundation in support of women and girls was 5%. These findings are based on analyses of more than 9,100 grants awarded by 42 foundations.
Nearly half of all grants identified as benefiting women and girls were in the area of human services (45%).
The majority of foundations surveyed (58%) allocated less than 10% of their expenditures to programs benefiting women and girls in 2009. This includes one-quarter that did not designate any funds to programs intended to benefit women and girls.
Although only a third of foundations surveyed said they specifically intended some of their programmatic activities to reach women and girls, ninety percent of foundations expressed interest in at least one issue related to women and girls. On average, foundations endorsed eight issues of interest. High levels of interest were noted for violence against women (74%), poverty among women and/or girls (73%), health issues affecting women and/or girls (72%), and women and/or girls access to education (71%).
It should also be noted* In its annual ranking of countries based on gender equality, the World Economic Forum reports that no nation has yet achieved gender equality. North American and European/Central Asian countries have made the most progress, but on average, countries in these regions have only closed 70% of the gender gap, meaning that women have access to 70% of the economic, educational, health, and political resources and opportunities available to men. In other parts of the world, the gender gap is considerably larger- countries in the Middle East and North Africa trail the furthest behind, where only 58% of the gender gap has been closed.
Foundation giving specifically targeted to benefit women and girls surpassed the rate of overall foundation giving between 1990 and 2006. Adjusted for inflation, giving targeted to women and girls grew by 223%, while overall foundation giving rose by 177%.
Sampled foundations specifically targeted 5.8% of their grant dollars to benefit women and girls in 2006. Since 1990, the share of grant dollars targeted to benefit women and girls has ranged from 5% in 1990 to 7.4% in 2000 and 2003.
In 2006, the Gates Foundation awarded 43 grants totaling $241.7 million for purposes benefiting women and girls, accounting for just over 20% of all giving targeted to women and girls.
The Ford Foundation, which ranked as the largest funder of women and girls overall in 1990, continued to lead in domestic- focused grant dollars targeting women and girls in 2006, with 94 domestic grants totaling $44.2 million.
Close to half of the grant dollars targeted to benefit women and girls by foundations supported health-related activities in 2006.
Giving to overseas recipients and to U.S.-based international programs accounted for over two-fifths of foundation grant dollars for women and girls in 2006, nearly double the 22% share of foundations' overall giving that supported international purposes.
*It should be kept in mind that the estimates of support for women and girls reported here represent the amount of support explicitly targeted to benefit women and girls. Many grants targeted to benefit other populations, such as the economically disadvantaged and children and youth, may also benefit women and girls in significant ways. In addition, many grants lack sufficient descriptive information to identify specific population groups that might be served or they may be targeted to serve the general public, including women and girls.
Health & Reproductive Issues
Today, 60% of the world's 1.55 billion women of reproductive age (15–44) live in countries where abortion is broadly legal.
The remaining 40% live where abortion is highly restricted, virtually all in the developing world.
In a country such as Uganda, about 300,000 abortions take place each year, notwithstanding the fact that abortion is legal only to save a woman's life. Unsafe abortion there is a leading cause of pregnancy-related death. Moreover, at current rates, half of all Ugandan women will require treatment for complications related to abortion at some point in their lives.
According to the World Health Organization, unsafe abortion is the cause of 70,000 maternal deaths each year—or one in eight pregnancy-related deaths among women. That translates to seven women per hour.
Of the almost 42 million abortions that take place around the world each year, about 20 million are unsafe and virtually all of those occur in developing countries.
In Guatemala, for example, where 37% of the population lives on less than $2 a day, the estimated cost of an illegal abortion carried out by a private medical doctor or in a private medical clinic ranges between $128 and $1,026. In Uganda, where 97% live on less than $2 a day, the price of an abortion from a professional source is $6–58. And in Pakistan, 66% live on less than $2 a day, and the average fee for a doctor-assisted abortion is $50–104.
The full repercussions of sex selection are just dawning. In China, the now grown-up surplus males of the 1980s are unable to find female partners, Hvistendahl observed. By 2013, one in 10 Chinese men of marriageable age will lack a female counterpart. By 2020 in northwest India, an estimated 15 to 20 percent of men will lack female counterparts.
80 percent of women in the United States have children by the time they are 44.
1 woman dies in childbirth for every 100,000 live births in Ireland. 2,100 women die in childbirth for every 100,000 live births in Sierra Leone.
New York Times Magazine August 2009
Half of all pregnancies in the US are unplanned. 
Finer, Lawrence B. and Mia R. Zolna. (2011). “Unintended pregnancy in the United States: incidence and disparities, 2006.” Contraception. In Press, Corrected Proof.
22% of pregnancies in the US end in abortion. 
Jones, Rachel K. and Kathryn Kooistra. (2011). “Abortion Incidence and Access to Services In the United States, 2008.” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 43 (1), 41–50.
Nearly one in five women in the US is now living without health insurance. The percentage of women aged 18 to 64 who don’t have health insurance increased from 19.2 percent in 2009 to 19.7 percent in 2010—the highest rate recorded in more than a decade. 
The percentage of women covered by employer-sponsored health insurance declined to 60.6 percent in 2010, down from 61.7 percent in 2009—a decrease that affected more than 600,000 women. Government assistance is also going down; the percentage of women covered by Medicaid declined to 11.5 percent from 11.7 percent the previous year. 
The Global Impact Investing Network, defines "impact investments" as "investments made into companies, organizations and funds with the intention to generate measurable social and environmental impact alongside a financial return."
The DeBoskey Group and Bruce DeBoskey is a Colorado-based philanthropic advisery group, helping families, businesses and foundations with their philanthropic initiatives.
Journalism & Media
Key Facts from Journalism and Media pulled from sources below.
Women comprised only 18.1% of all radio news directors.
Women represented 21.7% of guests on Sunday morning news talk shows airing on NBC, CBS, ABC, CNN, and Fox News.
In sports news, women represented 11.4% of all editors, 10% of all columnists, and 7% of all reporters.
In the key behind-the-scenes role in entertainment television, women were 18% of the creators, 22% of the executive producers, 37% of the producers, 15% of the writers, 11% of the directors, 20% of the editors, and 4% of the directors of photography.
A report on the 2010 winter Olympics found that female athletes were marginalized during the 2010 winter Olympics, receiving only 37.8 percent of prime-time coverage. What's the Gendered Story? Vancouver's Prime Time Olympic Glory on NBC 2012 While a report on the 2008 summer Olympics found female coverage to be significantly better, receiving 46.3 percent of air time during the broadcast network’s evening programming.
Women account for 22 percent of the leadership positions in journalism—a composite of women newspaper publishers (18 percent), women news directors of radio stations (20 percent) and women news directors at television stations (28 percent). 
Women of color account for less than 17 percent of female news staff, and only 6 percent of newsroom staff overall. 
Although women have been the majority of college journalism majors since 1977, the average male to female ratio for bylines at 11 of the top political and intellectual magazines is 7:1. 
Of the top 15 media corporations (which include a mix of print, online, television and radio businesses), all CEO s are male and only 17 percent of board members are women. 
Women represent only a third (33.3%) of the full-time journalism workforce in the 522 companies surveyed. 
Researchers found that 73% of the top management jobs are occupied by men compared to 27% occupied by women. Among the ranks of reporters, men hold nearly two-thirds of the jobs, compared to 36% held by women. However, among senior professionals, women are nearing parity with 41% of the newsgathering, editing and writing jobs. 
The two-year study covering 170,000 people in the news media found a higher representation of women in both governance and top management within both Eastern Europe (33% and 43%, respectively) and Nordic Europe (36% and 37%, respectively), compared to other regions. In the Asia and Oceana region, women are barely 13% of those in senior management, but in some individual nations women exceed men at that level, e.g., in South Africa women are 79.5% of those in senior management. In Lithuania women dominate the reporting ranks of junior and senior professional levels (78.5% and 70.6%, respectively), and their representation is nearing parity in the middle and top management ranks. 
Only nine of Newsweek’s Power 50 political pundits were women-five were conservative, four were liberal. Pundits play a crucial role in defining what is politically relevant in today’s society. 
Despite being nearly half (48 percent) of law school graduates, women make up only 18 percent of law partners and only one in four judges. 
Women lawyers’ salaries are slipping compared to men’s, at every level. Men who are of counsel lawyers earn about $20,000 more than their female counterparts; male equity partners take home $90,000 more than their female equivalents. 
While the confirmation of Sonia Sotomayor in 2009 as the first Hispanic Supreme Court Justice is momentous, as a matter of math two out of nine justices translates to only 22 percent female representation. 
The representation of women of color in law is among the worst of any of the 10 sectors in this report. Women of color account for less than 2 percent of partners in major law firms and of Fortune 500 general counsels. 
Women make up 11 percent of the officers in the top five officer categories today and 15 percent of all military officers. This represents significant progress into the top leadership positions, as in 1994 they represented 13 percent of all officers but less than 5 percent of the top five officer ranks. 
Women accounted for 14 percent of the enlisted personnel in 1996 and 9 percent in the top three ranks (E-7, E-8 and E-9); despite a decrease of 5 percent in the overall number of enlisted personnel, women made up 14 percent of the ranks and 10 percent of the top three ranks in September 2008. 
Women in the military are more likely to be members of a racial minority group than military men. Among enlisted personnel, 46 percent of women identify themselves as nonwhite and among officers, 32 percent of women identify themselves as non-white. 
The military remains the only profession in the United States which under Department of Defense policy prohibits women from taking certain jobs. This hinders women from being promoted to the top levels of leadership. 
Women make up 45 percent of the CEO s at nonprofits but only 21 percent of the CEO s at nonprofits with budgets of $25 million or more. 
Though the vast majority of workers in the nonprofit sector (73 percent) are women, men still hold a majority of top leadership positions and receive significantly higher incomes. 
Women CEO s of nonprofits have been losing ground relative to men in terms of salaries: Female CEO s now make only 66 percent of male salaries, compared with 71 percent in 2000. 
Women account for 43 percent of the board seats among all nonprofits but hold only 33 percent of the board seats at nonprofits with incomes of $25 million or more. People of color account for 18 percent of the staff in nonprofits and 14 percent of the board members. 
Key Facts from Philanthropy pulled from sources below.
Donations of products are growing at a faster rate than cash. Overall corporate giving, when both cash and products are counted, rose by nearly 15 percent in 2011. Pfizer donated the most ($3.1-billion) when counting both cash and products, followed by Oracle ($2.3-billion).
There were 987,000 public charities and 116,000 private foundations registered in the United States in 2009. Among them, they held more than $683 billion of charitable foundation assets and employed more than 9 million people.
Studies reveal that a woman’s innate desire to help others significantly contributes to broader economic prosperity. Consider this:
In nearly 90 percent of high net worth households, women are either the sole decision maker or an equal partner in decisions about charitable giving.
Women spend more time than men on due diligence before making decisions about giving to a charitable organization.
Women were more strategic in their charitable giving, with 78 percent creating an annual giving strategy and/or budget compared to 72 percent of men.
Women (82 percent) are more likely than men (71 percent) to be motivated to give when they are moved by how their gift can make a difference in the world, and because they want to set a good example for the next generation (women: 44 percent)(men: 25 percent).
Being actively involved with an organization and its mission through volunteering is also one of the most powerful motivators for women to give (women 66%) (men 50%)
In order to provide deeper insights into the motivations and attitudes of high net worth women and the role of networks a national survey of the American Red Cross Tiffany Circle was conducted. Findings of this study suggest that there is power in women's networks and associations. Responses from networked women in this study suggest that women in networks are more loyal to philanthropic causes, more educated and informed about philanthropic choices, and more trusting of nonprofits than others.
Women donate more of their wealth to charity than men. In the US, on average, high net worth women give 3.5% of their total net worth to charity each year, almost double the 1.8% given by men.
It is not only in the amount given but also in the method of giving that women differ from men.Women have a greater sense of collaboration and will often work together to gather opinions and achieve shared goals. Men on the other hand are more likely to make individual decisions and employ their own counsel.
Contributing Factors to Growth in Women’s Giving
In each of the five different income groups analyzed, female headed households are more likely to give to charity than male-headed households.
In every income group except one, women give more than men.
Female headed households are more likely to give than men in comparable households except for the widow/widower category.
Female headed households give more than men in comparable households except of the widow/widower category. 
Charitable giving by America's biggest companies- Cash donations totaled $4.9-billion last year (2010), up from $4.3-billion in 2009, according to figures provided by 113 companies.
Wal-Mart was ranked first with $319.5-million in cash giving. Additionally, Wal-Mart is also making a notable commitment in food and other non cash gifts, pledging to provide $1.75-billion over five years to food banks and other organizations that provide groceries to the poor.
The Goldman Sachs investment bank surged into second place with a 353-percent increase in its giving, to $315.4-million. When ranking companies by the combined total of their cash and products, Pfizer topped the list by giving $3-billion in cash and products, followed by Oracle ($2.3-billion) and Merck ($1.2-billion).
Fifty-eight companies increased their overseas giving by 20 percent last year, donating $3.8-billion, compared with $3-billion in 2009.
Global Giving: the Culture of Philanthropy. Key Findings:
-Almost a quarter of high net worth individuals (HNWIs) globally say charity is a top spending priority.
-US, Ireland, South Africa and India lead the way in terms of donation both money and time.
-UK and Qatar emerge as 'Volunteer' donors, donating time rather than money.
-Philanthropy has a bright future, with 44% of respondents more likely to make charity a spending priority when they retire, and amount of time allocated to charity set to increase by 194%.
-Men are more active philanthropists in developed countries, but in emerging countries, women take the lead.
-Taken by region, developing countries are the second most likely to give money after North America.
Politics & Political Representation
The Barbara Lee Foundation's mission is to advance women’s equality and representation in American politics and in the field of contemporary art. Our work in both our program areas is guided by our core belief that women’s voices strengthen our democracy and enrich our culture. Please visit their web-site for a number of research reports and more on women's political participation.
Women make up 51% of the population and 56% of all voters, yet congress is only 17% female.
The U.S. ranks 79th in the world, behind 95 other countries, for percentage of women in office.
In 2010 the number of women in office declined for the first time in 30 years.
Women make up only 17 percent of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate; no woman has ever been president or vice president. Women of color are completely absent from the Senate and account for only 5 percent in the House of Representatives. 
On a global scale, the U.S ranks 71st out of 189 countries in terms of the proportion of women in their national legislatures. We trail behind the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, Germany, Canada and Australia as well as Afghanistan, Cuba, United Arab Emirates and Pakistan. 
Women have lost ground in the last decade as elected statewide executive officials and made little progress in state legislatures; they hold 24 percent of the seats in state legislatures – only 2 percentage points more than a decade earlier – and 24 percent of state executive offices. 
There are only six women governors, and women comprise only 15 percent of mayors of cities with populations of over 100,000. 
Statistics show that in countries where more women are in political office, there is less corruption, even in countries with the same income, civil liberties, education, and legal institutions. 
Only in 19 countries out of a total of more than 180 countries interviewed, did women represent 30% (or more) of the Lower or Single Chamber; and only in 13 countries did they reach or surpass this percentage in the Upper Chamber or Senate. 
50-50 Gender Balance; By Angela Z. Allen
Key Facts from Poverty pulled from sources below.
Women work two-thirds of the world's working hours, produce half of the world's food, but earn only 10% of the world's income and own less than 1% of the world's property.
Women make up 70% of the world's 1 billion poorest people.
Of the 500,000 women who die in childbirth every year, 99% live in developing countries.In other words, in developing countries, a girl or a woman dies every minute in giving birth.
More than 850 million people— most of them women and children—suffer from chronic hunger or malnutrition.
80 percent of women workers are considered to be in vulnerable employment in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
More than half of the 40,000 jobs lost in the Philippines come from export processing zones, where 80 percent of workers are women.
Sri Lanka and Cambodia have each lost 30,000 mostly female garment industry jobs to date — in both countries, the garment industry accounts for at least half of export earnings.
Seven of the 10 lowest-paid occupations in the United States are restaurant occupations. Most of these occupations are majority female and pay median wages below the poverty line.
Servers – of whom 71 percent are female – are almost three times more likely to be paid below the poverty line than the general workforce and nearly twice as likely to need food stamps as the general popula tion.
More than one in four African-Americans (27.4 percent) lived in poverty in 2010, compared to one in seven (15.1 percent) Americans.
More than one-third (39.1 percent) of all African- American children live in poverty, compared to one in five children in the country as a whole.
Nearly 50 percent of African-American households headed by a single mother live in poverty, compared to 42.2 percent of all U.S. single-mother households.
The poverty rate among women rose to 14.5 percent in 2010, up from 13.9 percent in 2009—the highest rate in 17 years. The “extreme poverty rate” among women was the highest ever recorded, climbing to 6.3 percent in 2010 from 5.9 percent in 2009. 
“Extreme poverty” means that your income is below half of the federal poverty line—and by 2010, more than 7.5 million women had fallen into that dire category. 
17 million women were living in poverty in 2010, compared with 12.6 million men. As usual, things were worse for older women; twice as many women over 65 were living in poverty, compared with men. 
For Hispanic and black women, the poverty rate increased even faster and rose higher—to 25 percent for Hispanic women and to 25.6 percent for black women in 2010. 
More than 40 percent of women who head families are now living in poverty. With more than half of poor children living in female-headed families in 2010, the child poverty rate jumped to 22 percent. 
Although women overall constitute a majority of churchgoers (60 percent), men continue to dominate leadership roles in the church and temple. 
On average, in Judeo-Christian faith traditions in the U.S., women currently make up only about 15 percent of Protestant clergy and rabbis. 
More women than ever are training for leadership: the proportion of women in Protestant seminaries nearly tripled over the last few decades; today, about half of all Reform Jewish seminary students are female. 
Until there is a change both in the rule prohibiting women from ministerial leadership in the Catholic Church, Orthodox Judaism and Islam, and in the resistance to women’s leadership that remains in other religions, women will continue to face an unbreakable stained-glass ceiling. 
Science & Technology
In 2008, women earned 57 percent of all bachelor’s degrees, yet they only earned 18 percent of computer and information science bachelor’s degrees — down from 37 percent in 1985. 
Similarly, in 2008 women held 57 percent of all professional occupations in the U.S. workforce but only 25 percent of all professional IT-related jobs — down from 36 percent in 1991. 
According to a study by the Center for Work-Life Policy, 74 percent of women in technology report “loving their work,” yet these women leave their careers at a staggering rate: 56 percent of technical women leave at the “mid-level” point just when the loss of their talent is most costly to companies. This is more than double the quit rate for men. It is also higher than the quit rate for women in science and engineering. 
In 2008, technical women earned an average salary of $70,370.21. Over the same time period, men’s salaries averaged $80,357. Consequently, the gender gap widened to 12.43 percent, a slight increase from 11.9 percent the previous year and nearly a 3 percent increase from 2006 when the gap was at 9.7 percent. 
Shopping & Purchasing Power
Key Facts from Shopping & Purchase Power pulled from sources below.
The average female luxury consumer spent 22% more in 2010 compared to 2008, while men only spent 10% more.
In 2010, women accounted for more than half of China's estimated $15 billion in luxury sales (compared to 45% in 2008).
Numerous studies show that men spend more of their income on items for their own consumption, including alcohol, cigarettes, high-status consumer goods and even “female companionship”. Women are more likely to purchase goods for their household and specifically for their children, including food, healthcare, education, clothing and personal-care products.
Globally, women control nearly US$12 trillion of the overall US$18.4 trillion in consumer discretionary spending. In the next five years, women will control US$15 trillion. By 2028, they will control nearly 75% of consumer discretionary spending worldwide.
Globally, women control about $20 trillion in annual consumer spending, and that figure could climb as high as $28 trillion in the next five years. Women's $13 trillion in total yearly earnings could reach $18 trillion in the same period.
(There are some discrepancies with annual consumer spending statistics. Click the links for more information regarding each study).
Surveys show that women account for 80 percent of all consumer- expenditure decisions in the U.S., making 93 percent of food purchases and 65 percent of auto buys.
It is estimated that by 2014, women could earn about $18 trillion a year and control as much as $28 trillion of spending globally.
62% of women report that they “typically” buy and resell products using online auction sites, such as eBay – the 3rd most visited site by women.
In February 2010, women accounted for 49.8 percent of the U.S. online population, but made up 57.9 percent of all non-travel buyers, made 61.1 percent of online purchases and accounted for 58.2 percent of online dollars.
In the U.S. market, women makeup just under half of the Internet population but generate 58 percent of e-commerce dollars.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, women oversee over 80% of consumer spending, or about $5 trillion dollars annually.
In e-commerce, female purchasing power is also pretty clear. Sites like Zappos (>$1 billion in revenue last year), Groupon ($760m last year), Gilt Groupe ($500m projected revenue this year), Etsy (over $300m in GMV last year), and Diapers ($300m estimated revenue last year) are all driven by a majority of female customers. According to Gilt Groupe, women are 70% of the customer base and they drive 74% of revenue. And 77% of Groupon’s customers are female according to their site. 
Key Facts from Social Media pulled from sources below.
The percentage of moms who own a smartphone has grown enormously over the past couple of years. As recently as 2009, just 8% of moms had one, according to Arbitron. February data from Arbitron and Edison Research found that 61% of total US moms surveyed owned a smartphone in 2012, ahead of the 44% of total consumers who owned one.
Mobile devices allow moms to log in more frequently: Arbitron and Edison found that 46% of US social networking moms surveyed visited social networks multiple times per day in 2012, up from 37% in 2011 and 32% in 2010.
According to Abernethy, who brands herself as “America’s Leading Social Business Stylist,” Pinterest started “underground” on the West Coast. It has been around for several years, but didn’t reach critical mass until 2011. The latest statistics indicate there are 17.8 million people on Pinterest, with 2 million “daily” Facebook users pinning. Some 97% of users are women, and the average viewer spends 1 hour and 18 minutes on a Pinterest board. As Pinterest evolves the numbers are projected to climb in the second half of 2012.
Comscore says women are the majority of users of social networking sites and spend 30% more time on these sites than men; mobile social network usage is 55% female according to Nielsen. 
Sheryl Sandberg, COO of Facebook, has talked about how women are not only the majority of its users, but drive 62% of activity in terms of messages, updates and comments, and 71% of the daily fan activity. Women have 8% more Facebook friends on average than men, and spend more time on the site. 
More women use Twitter, which has a reputation for being a techie insider’s (i.e., male) product. Women follow more people, tweet more, and have more followers on average than men, according to bloggers Dan Zarella and Darmesh Shaw’s analyses. 
Women who read blogs routinely trust implicitly the advice and recommendations they receive, especially if it is from a blogger that they follow on a regular basis. This was found to be true in every study conducted over the past four years and the effect never diminishes. In this year’s Social Media study, 88% of the active blog readers in the total U.S. general population trust the information they get from familiar blogs.
comScore analyzed the Internet behaviors of women everywhere and found that while women make up a little less than half of the global online population (46%), their online behaviors drastically distinguish them from male Internet users. On average, women spend more time online per month, 24.8 hours compared to 22.9 hours for men. However, nearly 56 percent of adult women say they use the Internet to stay in touch with people, compared to 46 percent of adult men.
Research studies show that 3 out of 5 moms blog, and 9 out of 10 moms list Facebook as their go-to social media destination.
Only 20.9% of all NCAA teams (men and women's) are coached by female head coaches, 42.6% of women's teams are coached by female head coaches but when Title IX was in enacted in 1972 over 90% of the head coaches for women's teams were female.
42.9% of womenʼs teams are coached by females.
2% to 3% of menʼs teams are coached by females.
57.1% of womenʼs teams are coached by males.
97 to 98% of menʼs teams are coached by males.
20.3% of athletics directors are females.
Division 1 has the largest administrative staffs with an average of 5.98 people each.
A more robust list of women's intercollegiate statistics can be found in the research report on Women in intercollegiate sport.
Despite Title IX and the influx of young women into sports, only 21 percent of collegiate athletic directors are female; only six of the 13 Women’s Basketball Association teams have head female coaches; and none of the National Basketball Association teams has a female head coach, general manager or president. 
While women of color were 47 percent of NCAA basketball players in 2007-08, they made up only 11 percent of the head coaches of these teams; in the 2008 WNBA season; there was one female African-American head coach. 
Women make up 48 percent of the athletes in Olympic competition but only 15 percent of the members of the International Olympic Committee and none of the officers. 
In tennis, the one sport where women come closest to men in overall earning power, the top paid tennis player (winnings plus endorsements), Roger Federer ($35 million) surpasses the number two, Maria Sharapova ($26 million) by $9 million, and the Williams sisters ($15 million each) by $20 million. 
Violence Against Women & Trafficking
Key Facts from Violence Against Women & Trafficking pulled from sources below.
One in three American Indian women have been raped or have experienced an attempted rape, according to the Justice Department. Their rate of sexual assault is more than twice the national average.
It is estimated that from 100 to 140 million girls and women have undergone some form of genital mutilation/cutting, and at least 3 million girls are at risk of undergoing the practice every year.
In 2010 the arrest rate for rape in the US was 24 percent, which was exactly what it was in the late 1970s.
While an estimated 17 percent of women in the general population become victims at some point in their lives, a 2006 study of female veterans financed by the Department of Veterans Affairs estimated that between 23 percent and 33 percent of uniformed women had been assaulted.
Defense Secretary Leon Panetta estimated that the number of attacks in 2011 by service members on other service members — both women and men — was close to 19,000, more than six times the number of reported attacks.
The domestic violence stats for just one day in the United States are frightening. The national network did a statistical snapshot for domestic violence in just one day — Sept. 15, 2011.
On that Thursday, 67,399 women and children reported domestic violence, including 614 in the District, 866 in Maryland and 1,304 in Virginia.
Among women aged between 15 and 44, acts of violence cause more death and disability than cancer, malaria, traffic accidents and war combined.
Women and girls comprise 80 percent of the estimated 800,000 people trafficked annually, with the majority (79 percent) trafficked for sexual exploitation.
An estimated 150 million girls under 18 suffered some form of sexual violence in 2002 alone.
As many as 1 in 4 women experience physical and/or sexual violence during pregnancy which increases the likelihood of having a miscarriage, still birth and abortion.
In Sao Paulo, Brazil, a women is assaulted every 15 seconds.
In Ecuador, adolescent girls reporting sexual violence in school identified teachers as the perpetrator in 37 percent of cases.
Between 40 and 50 percent of women in European Union countries experience unwanted sexual advancements, physical contact or other forms of sexual harassment at their workplace.
According to the United Nations, one of every three women on the planet will be physically or sexually abused in her lifetime.
Domestic violence alone cost approximately USD 1.16 billion in Canada and USD 5.8 billion in the United States. In Australia, violence against women and children costs an estimated USD 11.38 billion per year.
There were an estimated at 84,767 forcible rapes reported to law enforcement in 2010. This estimate was 5.0 percent lower than the 2009 estimate and 10.3 percent and 6.7 percent lower than the 2006 and 2001 estimates, respectively. 
The rate of forcible rapes in 2010 was estimated at 54.2 per 100,000 female inhabitants. 
Rapes by force comprised 93.0 percent of reported rape offenses in 2010, and attempts or assaults to commit rape accounted for 7.0 percent of reported rapes. 
According to UN estimates, about 2.5 million people from 127 countries have been trafficked to 137 countries for purposes such as forced labour, sexual exploitation, the removal of organs and body parts, forced marriages, child adoption and begging. 
Firm statistics are nearly impossible to come by, but studies show that honor killings accelerated significantly in a 20-year period between 1989 and 2009. 
A study in Zaria, Nigeria found that 16 percent of hospital patients treated for sexually transmitted infections were younger than 5.
In Zimbabwe, domestic violence accounts for more than 60% of murder cases that go through the high court in Harare.